California Educator

February / March 2019

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Page 39 of 71

Before the 1860s, sign language was popular among the Deaf community and also supported by the hearing community. The hearing community believed that sign language brought deaf people closer to God, which cre- ated sign language acceptance. In the late 1860s it was argued that sign language was not a nat- ural language. Support for oralism — teaching Deaf people to communicate by the use of speech and lip-reading rather than sign language — increased. Oralists believed that sign lan- guage made Deaf people "different" and therefore abnormal. Sign language was forbidden. Punish- ment included forcing students to wear white gloves tied together to prevent them from using signs. Oralism continued until the early 20th century. Deaf children who were not successful under the oral method were transferred to sign language classes and considered "oral failures" who would never know anything or be able to make it in the world. After ASL was recognized as a language by William Stokoe in 1960, residential programs in the United States began to adopt the Total Communication approach, which allowed schools to offer sign language along with speech classes, cued speech and other communica- tion modes in classroom teaching. By the 1990s, the Bilingual-Bicultural approach was adopted by many Deaf schools, including Marlton, where students develop cognitive and linguistic skills needed for ASL and English literacy. "Full inclusion" — in place since the 1975 law that became the Individuals With Disabilities Education Act — lets Deaf students attend regular class- rooms with interpreters. However, many in Deaf Education believe this can lead to isolation, since students lack peers to speak with directly. Regardless of program placement, all Deaf students receive an Individu- alized Education Program (IEP) that outlines how the school will meet a student's individual needs. Deaf Education Through the Years Marlton School student Tafari Booth. 38 feature NEW ACCOUNT BONUS $150 OPEN A NEW ACCOUNT WITH CHECKING AND EARN $150! To earn the $150 New Account Bonus, simply do these three things for two consecutive months, starting the month following your account opening:* 1) Make purchases of $300 or more using a Provident debit and/or credit card per month** 2) Have monthly direct deposits or automatic credits of at least $500 3) Enroll in online banking and e-Documents with valid email address To apply, call (800) 632-4600 or visit and use promo code 9336. * , ** In order to qualify for your New Account Bonus your account must be active and in good standing for two consecutive months following the month that your account is opened. We generally pay the New Account Bonus by crediting your Provident Credit Union Checking account within 120 days of account opening. Other terms and conditions apply. Please visit for details. Approved by: Federally insured by NCUA to at least $250,000.

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